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"... Science should be a guiding star for legislator rather than a mean of his enslavement. Contrary to the phrase "numeri regunt mundum" (numbers govern the world), the actuaries should always avoid the intention to dominate in the world of politics. Alike the heart is guided by causes unknown to the brain, the politics may be guided by causes unknown to the science. In his activity, legislator may be forced to obey to some reasons more important than just scientific accuracy; if he has to neglect sometimes the later, it is still important to conserve a clear understanding of the urged sacrifices to politics to minimize them and to come back to the right principles as soon as possible.

If the actuary will be satisfied by the role of such a decent and faithful adviser who manages without going in abstractions, who is condensed in his own profession rather than intrudes in other's, who advises without obtrusion, and who leaves to the time to prove correctness of his judgements which must be respected under the threat of sorrow consequences, his importance will be ever increasing. The parliament and administration will address to him for his professional expertise with more and more credence. Social laws, better elaborated and better supervised, will be free from bad consequences imminent when technical rules are neglected. The actuaries and the State will both benefit from that."

(Quoted from the article by Cheisson "Actuaries and Law", Insurance review, number 11, November 1897, p. 648-652; number 12, December 1897, p. 737-742.)

The author is Fellow of the Institute of French Actuaries. The reader interested in harmonization of the modern insurance and pension legislation will find that this article, though written in 1890th, is quite update.

The article is published as Addendum 1 to the book: S.E.Sawitch. Elementary Theory of Insurance and Pensions (in Russian); first ed. 1900, second ed. 1909.



International Actuarial Association (IAA) unites the national professional bodies. The site of IAA is

One aim of IAA, among others, is to support the scientific and practical contacts among the national professional unions. Bearing in mind that aim, the International Congresses of Actuaries are held regularly by IAA (it is noteworthy that IAA appeared first as a Permanent Committee for organization of the Congresses).

By the present time, 27 International Congresses of Actuaries were held: first in 1895 in Brussels, second in 1898 in London, third in 1900 in Paris, fourth in 1903 in New York, fifth in 1906 in Berlin, sixth in 1909 in Wien, seventh in 1912 in Amsterdam, eight in 1927 in London, ninth in 1930 in Stockholm, tenth in 1934 in Rome, eleventh in 1937 in Paris, thirteenth in 1951 in Scheweningen, fourteenth in 1954 in Madrid, fifteenth in 1957 in New York, sixteenth in 1960 in Brussels, seventeenth in 1964 in London and Edinburgh, eighteen in 1968 in Munich, nineteenth in 1972 in Oslo, twentieth in 1976 in Tokyo, twenty-first in 1980 in Zurich and Lausanne, twenty-second in 1984 in Sydney, twenty-third in 1988 in Helsinki, twenty-fourth in 1992 in Montreal, twenty-fifth in 1995 in Brussels, twenty-sixth in 1998 in Birmingham, twenty-seventh in 2002 in Cancun.

The Congress in St.-Petersburg was planned to held in 1915, but it was cancelled because of WWI; twelfth Congress was planned to held in 1940 in Lucerne. but it was cancelled because of WWII; the articles presented for the twelfth Congress were published.

Forthcoming Congress is to be held in 2006 in Paris ( .

Update: 13.12.2005 

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